Ballarat Business Online. Ballarat is a city in Victoria, Australia, and one of the country's largest inland cities. It is well-known for its history and heritage. It is approximately 105 kilometres north-west of Melbourne, with an urban population of 88,437people. Ballarat is notable as the site for Australia's only armed civil uprising, referred to as the Eureka Stockade but more correctly titled the Eureka Rebellion, which took place on 3 December 1854. The event, in which 22 miners (eureka diggers) died, is considered a defining moment in Australian history.